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Topic Question Answer
 Aero-Tube thickness AeroTube seems to be more thicker than those of competitors. Can you explain why?  a thicker wall could add durability to the product.  Thinner walled product wears out and oxidizes faster.
 SAE   Why is SAE  higher in salt water than in fresh water?
 
because in salt water, you get smaller bubbles probably because of the density of the water(surface tension).  Smaller bubbles transfer more oxygen than larger ones.  Smaller bubbles also rise slower in the water so they have longer to transfer O2 to the water.
 Durability What is an estimated duration of Aero tube? many of our customers kept using the aero-tube for four to five years. But after several years of continuous usage, the tubing should be replaced to maintain the maximum efficiency and oxygen exchange,
Hose   In case instaling 6 grids connected with 1 blower (3 hp) under  shrimp farm water depth 1.8 m, how long can the main and lateral hose be extended under blower condition of air flow 264 m3/hr (44 x 6) and air pressure 2,000 mmH2O   Of course the longer and the samller diameter the hose you use the bigger the pressure loss in hose, if the total hose is less than 60 meters with HDPE with one blower, the compressor lost is acceptable. For getting real airflow 264m3/hour you need to check the blower’s airflow curve to ensure  it can satisfy your need. 1 meter water depth means about 10kp or 0.1kg/cm2 pressure, and our aero-tube operation pressure is less than 7kpa or 0.07kg/cm2.  There is some soft ware which could help us to get the total pressure lost in hose. 
Hose   In order to extend more, does it need more air flow or air pressure or both?
 
  Air pressure!
benifit  what's the benefit in using aero-tube   The aero-tube can acheive this with a lot less horse power that creates savings for the farmers. What you have to do is educate the farmers on the following. (1) energy savings is profit. (2) You can run the air-lift 24 hrs cheaper than you can run a paddle-wheel for 12 hrs. (3) the paddle-wheel cools the water down at night where  the air-lift don,t (4) By running the air-lift 24 hrs. a day you can  get better converstion rates which creates a higher profit margin. You get better water quality and keeping the DO levels higher on the bottom of the ponds where the shrimp live. On a test done in Georgia in an 8 acre pond where the air-lift was ran 24 hrs. they feed  the same rate of 250 lbs. per acre they harvested 5000 more lbs. last year in the two ponds over the ponds where they just ran the paddle-wheel at night. And the back up paddle wheels never came on. that is more profit for the farmer with the same output.
Durability What is the average durability of the Aeration Tubing? The durability of the tubing is not a problem. It does not have a very high tensile strength but the material itself will last a long time. Up till now our tubing has only been used in clean water. By this I mean non-salt water. It has been used for several years in aquaculture and wast water. We have recommended that it be changed out every two to three years for best performance. I don't think the degree of salinity will make much difference.The potential problems comes from contamination. The pores can become clogged from the inside or outside. The air supply should be clean and dry. This means having a filter on the blower which will help make the both the blower and tubing last longer. Another way it can become contaminated from the inside is from the water itself. This tubing should be run twenty four hours a day-seven days a week. When the system is turned off, water will move through the pores to the inside. When the system is turned back on the air pressure will push the water back out and any small particles in the water can collect in the pores. Turning the system on and off a few times will not hurt anything, but doing it all the time can cause the tubing to clog to the point where there may be excessive back pressure making the blower work harder and the system becoming less efficient. The tubing can become fouled on the outside with algae. This is not a serous problem. All underwater aeration devices like ours or airstones can get a growth of algae on them. The difference is ours can be cleaned by rinsing with water and the airstone has to be cleaned in a solution of muriatic acid. The one potential problem we do not now about are barnacles in salt water and what effect they will have on the tubing.
Terminology What are the most commonly used terms in Aeration? TDS  Total Dissolved Solids
LRA  Linear Regression
NLRA  Non-Linear Regression
Here are some you didn't ask about but they may come up.
OTR  Oxygen Transfer Rate
SOTR  Standard Oxygen Transfer Rate
AE  Aeration Efficiency
SAE Standard Aeration Efficiency  (This is an important one. It is the SOTR per unit total power input. The higher the number the better.)
OTE  Oxygen Transfer Efficiency
SOTE Standard Oxygen Transfer Efficiency
BOD  Biological Oxygen Demand
DO  Dissolved Oxygen
Headloss Compare the headloss of AertoTube to other devices As compared to a soaker hose or other aeration devices our AeroTube has a very low headloss. This is because it is extremely porous. Where it take less than two "inches"of pressure to move air through the wall of our tubing, it may take two, three, or more "pounds" of pressure to move air through some of these other devices. Because it is very porous it takes less energy to operate making the electric or fuel bill for the farmer less.
     
 SAE   Will SAE change with different blower?   One really important thing though is that the SAE will NOT be the same for every blower.  Because SAE is the # kg O2 per Hour per KW of blower it is very dependent also on the efficiency of the blower.  Not all blowers give the same CFM per KW and therefore it is VERY important that you choose the highest output of air per KW.  For example, we have worked with Fuji and Allstar blowers and although they are both 1 horsepower blowers, the Fuji only gives 54 CFM and the All Star 75.  In this situation, you will have the same energy consumption but the SAE using these two blowers will be completely different because of the different flows.  This is very important to understand.
Soaker & AeroTube Differences We have studied the samples of soaker hose and aeration tube and found the following differences:
a) Soaker hose has smaller OD and thinner thickness.
b) Aerotube has smaller pinhole size and finer surface.
Are these differences typical and representable? Our understanding is that fluid for soaker hose is liquid (water) and aerotube is gas (air or oxygen). So thinner wall for soaker hose provides less resistance for water to go out of the hose. Thicker wall for aeration tube with smaller pinholes makes air/oxygen go out with finer bubbles and higher oxygen transfer efficiency.
The reasons way the soaker has the demission it does has more to do with economics than with function.If it was less expensive to make a thick wall soaker that used more rubber and less plastic, that's what we would be doing. We have tried to hit a happy medium where we have a hose that will carry water over a long distance and be a emitter of water at the same time. 
Soaker & AeroTube Differences Can soaker hose and aerotube be replaced each other if efficiency is not so much concerned. In other words, can we make a standard product to use as both soaker hose and aerotube?  It seldom works and you will have a product that doesn't perform well for either markets. The aeration tubing needs to be extremely porous to do its job and the soaker has to be less porous to do its job. Over the years people have tried to use soaker hose for aeration with very little success. When used in aeration the soaker will oxidize and become brittle in a short period of time, sometimes in less than a year. If it is used with pure oxygen it can happen in a couple of months.
Dimensions Do we have only one standard dimension AeroTube or we have more dimension customization options to customer? There is only one size which is 1".
Cleaning Cleaning of AeroTube: As we know, after certain period of usage, tube pinholes may be blocked by excrements or feeding foods. We read from AeroTube brochure that this tube can be cleaned simply by water. We would like to know how cleaning process is going on. Usually will the users take out the whole set out of water to rinse it? It is possible to change the air blower to water pump so water can go through same channel instead of air for cleaning?  The function of anti-bacterial tubing could effectively avoid the bacterial grow on the direct surface of inner and outer surface of the tubing which is the main reason for cloggy. However algae can grow on the tubing and dust may sink on the tubing also if the water pH is high and Ca2+ is high CaCO3 may deposit on the pore of the tubing. If the above cloggy occurs you can use TCCA or similar chemical water solution to soak the tubing for 24 hours which can effectively delete the algae and CaCO3.
Dimensions what is the maximum length of aerotube in application? We saw some local soaker hoses/aeration tubes here. Air transmission loss is significantly to be ¾ of original intake if the length ranges from 5 to 20 meters. What is the criterion to define acceptable or recommended length during application? We have a potential customer who requests 18-meter parallel tubes in his ponds. Will this length have risk in remaining sufficient air transmission volume?  We recommend the tubing NOT be over 4' to 5' in length to get the best results.  By using longer lengths the air flow will not disburse correctly due to the tubing be so porous.
Algae growth The brochure of AeroTube states that it helps to reduce algae bloom. From Shanghai Fisheries University this was questioned. The effects on phytoplankton (algae) are less predictable.  Destratification may reduce algae through one or more processes:  1) algal cells will be mixed to deeper, darker lake areas, decreasing the cells' time in sunlight and thereby reducing their growth rate, 2) some algae species that tend to sink quickly and need mixing currents to remain suspended (e.g., diatoms) may be favored over more buoyant species such as the more noxious blue-greens, 3) changes in the lake's water chemistry (ph, carbon dioxide, alkalinity) brought about by higher dissolved oxygen levels can lead to a shift from blue-green to less noxious green algae or diatoms, and 4) mixing of algae-eating zooplankton into deeper, darker waters reduces their chances of being eaten by sight-feeding fish; hence, if more zooplankton survive, their consumption of algal cells also may increase.  While algal blooms have been in some lake destratification/circulation projects, in other lakes phytoplankton populations have not changed or have actually increased.  For shallow lakes, it's even less likely that complete circulation would result in any of the above-mentioned benefits.  This is because algae are less likely to become light-limited in shallow lakes, nor would water chemistry changes be as pronounced.
Nitrate levels The brochure of AeroTube states that it helps to reduce nitrates levels. From Shanghai Fisheries University this was questioned. The nitrate is part of the nitrification process of ammonia.  They have to have bacteria for the process, in which the D.O. (dissolved oxygen) levels will give you the bacteria.
Shellfish Some farmers said they are always facing the problem that shellfish sticks to aeration tube. How can we prevent it and how to solve it if it happened? With use Anti-Microbial Tubing I have never heard of any problem with shellfish sticking to the tubing.   
Sizing a pond How can we calculate the optimal tube usage, layout and reccomended power for blower? The safest way to size a pond is to find out the maximum amount of pounds of fish that will be in there at any given time and the most pound of feed that will be fed in a days time.  You need one pound of oxygen every hour for ever 4,000 pounds of fish and one pound of oxygen per every one pound of feed.  This will take care of BOD loading, ammonia and the saturation level due to the high water temperature. If the farmer is not having BOD and/or ammonia problems and is using the paddle wheel refer back to the chart that Gerry Shell did to compare what HP they need. 
Durability How long does the tube last?  The material the tubing is made from will last almost indefintely. The problem comes with contamination from dirty air or water. This is why we suggest that an air filter be on the blower and it not be cycled on and off. The more times it is turned off and on, the more often dirty water has a chance clog the pores. We recommend the tubing be replaced every two to three years.
Bubble size What is the size of the bubble?  2 to 3 mm
Headloss What is the back pressure/head loss? 2" or 50mm plus the depth of the water the tubing is in.
Sunlight incidence What is the incidence of direct sunlight/UV? Breakdown? This has not been a problem here but, we have a customer in Chile who uses the irrigation hose in the high mountain desert and he says if he leaves it out for a long period of time it can become a little brittle. This is also the driest spot on Earth and the UV is very high, nothing grows there.
Quantity in Container How much tube can be shipped in 20 ft and 40 ft conatiners? You can get 70,000 ft on a 20 ft container and 140,000 ft on a 40 ft container.
Stopping blower When you stop the blower, does the water go into the tube? Consequences?  Yes eventually it will stop up, depending on the solids in the water. We have had it in waste water for six years. Cycling off and on and it is still running good. I strongly advise the blower to run 24-7. 
Cleaning How do you clean the tube, and how often?  Two ways: 1) wear a pair of gloves and wipe/rub vigorously  2) increase your CFM for a short period of time and that will blow off the debris. 
Clogging Sometimes they don't want to run it 24 hours a day, does it clog?  again I strongly recommend the blowers run 24-7, the cost to run the blower is insignificant. Cutting off for very long periods of time can cause antiaerobic bacteria as well as methane gas (this is not good). 
Bacteria The bacteria, can it get into the tube?  Yes, It can be a good thing as well as bad, if bacteria gets inside the tubing this can cause it to clogg up. We now have new selection to farmers: Anti-microbial tubing which can avoid bacterial, algea and shellfish growth on it.
Blower How much volume can you aerate with a 1hp blower?  That depends on the pounds of fish and pounds of fed that is being applied and also depends on the blower's parameter( pressure and airflow at certain pressure).  
Sizing a pond How much tube do you need for a certain tank or pond?  The amount of feet depends on the CFM the blower puts out. Go to the charts done by GSEE this is more or less your bible to size up each tank or pond. This is never a one size fits all application, each one will be a little different. 
Dimensions How long can the tube be without losing pressure or uniformity?  We recommend not to go over 8 foot unless a header at each end, 3-4 foot is the best when feeding air at both ends.  
Pressure What is the air pressure that you need to put a fine bubble in the air?  Go back and study the charts by GSEE. The lower the CFM is the higher the oxygen transfer rate is. Give out the numbers that we have tested at. 
Salt water What is the reason for which the tube performs much better in salt water?  sales make the oxygen molecule more easy than in fresh water to enter in to the water medium.
Dimensions Is the tube available in more than 200 ft coils? No. The reason for this is that the 200 ft coil weighs 44 lbs, and if it was bigger it would be difficult to handle.
Fittings Some people from Bangladesh and Malaysia asked if we could provide the fittings, as they said they could not get fittings for our AeroTube in their countries. Yes, we could provide the fittings.
Headloss what are major differences between Aero-Tube and other similar products For example from the data in the Japanese website(httpwww.yamatoj.comenglishuneiqpipeindex.html) I can say that there are big difference in SAE between our Aero-Tube and the Japanese products. Their products operation pressure is 0.2 kg/cm2 ( see attached 2). Ours is less than 0.07kg/cm2. For example if we put the two products below the same water surface such as 1 m, the least total operation pressure for Japanese products is 0.3kg/cm2(0.2+0.1). And for our aero-tube is 0.17( 0.07+0.1). For a same blower higher pressure means less airflow, and the airflow difference is very big at 0.17kg/cm2 and 0.3 kg/cm2. The attached 3 is an All Star blower's airflow curve in different air pressure. And in our experience, the ALL Star blower is in high quality, but the airflow is still changes very big facing different air pressure. The same kw power blower produces less airflow with similar bubble size means low efficiency in SAE.
airflow You have mentioned the Air Flow rate as 0.037m3/min per meter length, whereas the Diffusers in practice e.g., Dia 63mm x 1000mm Length, is giving Air Flow rate as 0.13-0.167m3/min. Moreover, the pressure drop, as conveyed to you is quite less, as compared to the one offered by you, due to reduced Dia. They are different equipments, the key is SAE not airflow. 0.037m3/min is just the best running parameter for our aero-tube.
airflow You have mentioned the Air Flow rate as 0.037m3/min per meter length, whereas the Diffusers in practice e.g., Dia 63mm x 1000mm Length, is giving Air Flow rate as 0.13-0.167m3/min. Moreover, the pressure drop, as conveyed to you is quite less, as compared to the one offered by you, due to reduced Dia. They are different equipments, the key is SAE not airflow. This flow rate is what we have determined provides the HIGHEST SAE overall.  The tubing can run in a wide range of flows both below and above this rate.  If you go above this flow, you will get larger bubbles and more mixing of the water column but lower SAE overall.  You will still have high oxygen transfer rates but slightly lower rates per HP.  Many people run higher flows in the initial phases of a wastewater treatment system in order to do more mixing of the water column.  Then in the later phases where they are clarifying and “polishing” the water, they reduce to our recommended standard where oxygen transfer efficiency becomes more important than mixing the column.  The tubing is very versatile with air flow, you can run a wide range
Durability what is the average life of these type of diffusers and the requirement for it's maintenance Maintenance depends on the system.  They may need to routinely clean them. We have a number of wastewater facilities running the tubing for over 5 years.  I would recommend they replace the tubing every 3 years however to maintain energy efficiencies. The maintenance for our aero-tube system is simple especially when you use it continuously 24 hours a day!     Under proper operating conditions the tubing should not become blocked.  It may clog if it is placed directly on the pond bottom, because it is designed to be suspended eight to ten inches off the bottom.  Aero-Tube™ aeration tubing works best when run continuously but it can also be used intermittently as long as it is run regularly to clear out any potential contamination. Cleaning the tubing is very simple, 1) Wear a pair of gloves and wipe/rub vigorously,  2) Increase your airflow for a short period of time and that will blow off the debris.

  We HIGHLY recommend when removing the tubing when not in use especial in muddy water. This tubing is more efficient ran continuously. Never leave the tubing out in the sun for long periods of time.

 
Bubble size What is the Bubble size and teh no. of Pores per meter of Length? The average bubble is 1 to 3 mm, changing with airflow per meter tube. There are an incredibly high number of pores per meter
Blower is blower very important in aero-tube system? Not all blowers give the same CFM per KW and therefore it is VERY important that you choose the highest output of air per KW.  For example, we have worked with Fuji and Allstar blowers and although they are both 1 horsepower blowers, the Fuji only gives 54 CFM and the All Star 75.  In this situation, you will have the same energy consumption but the SAE using these two blowers will be completely different because of the different flows.  This is very important to understand.
 
SAE Does the water depth affected SAE Depth does affect SAE because the deeper the water, the more energy needed to push the air to the bottom (more head pressure).  HOWEVER, because we have such small bubbles, the deeper they are, the more time they have in the water column when they rise to transfer oxygen.  This is why it isn’t such a major difference when comparing .7 m with 1.5 meters.  If you go much deeper though to say 2, 3 or 4 meters, the KW needed to push the air becomes greater.
water depth  for our Aero-Tube do we have a best result for the grids place depth in aqua pond considering the SAE,( blower compressor, cost, water mixing….)?  The key thing is you need 0.4 CFM per foot of tubing AT THE DEPTH THE CUSTOMER IS WORKING.  So we can’t just recommend 1 – 1.1 kw blower for 3 grids in every situation.  If a pond is 1 meter this may work but at 2 meters this will not be enough air.  You need to have the efficiency curve and check this before recommending.
water depth our grid could mixing the water well just 0.8 M below the surface of the water in water depth ranging from 1.3-2.5M, right? The grid moves so much water, it will mix the pond even if it is only .8 meters below the surface.  This will not be an issue.  He can also place them 20-30 cm from bottom but you need to make sure he has the correct flow (m3 air) per grid at this depth.  If it is too low flow (because of the water column pressure), it will actually work worse
water depth Do we have a suggestion for depth of placing grids? There is no standard rule, the customer can use the grids at any depth.  The only issue is they will need more grids or less grids depending on the flow.  I believe the All Star works perfectly with 3 grids (0.4 CFM per foot or 26.4 cfm per grid) at approximately 1.0 meters depth (40 inches).  If we go less deep, they will have a slightly higher flow rate than 0.4.  This is fine, it will simply mix better.  If they go deeper than 1.0 meter they will have slightly less flow which will increase slightly their oxygen transfer but drop the amount of water they move.
hose lenghth If the hose is two long between the grids, could the airflow compressor decrease quickly? It depends on the material in the tubing.  If he is using HDPE (High density poly ethylene) there is very little loss over 60 meters.  If the tubing is PVC, he will have greater losses.  If it is HDPE 60 meters will be fine. 
hose and air valve  the blower’s airflow becomes less and less along the long length hose accordingly different grid faces different compressor. The result is the airflow is different between the three girds if we do not control the valve to each grid, so how to do? This is correct.  What I would suggest is that they use T Valves at the point they connect the different grids.  This way they can reduce the flow to the first grid and increase to the last one in case there is different flows.
hose Can we give a standard suggestion for farmers because they use different hose( length and diameter) to connect the grids.  It is actually more about the material they are using for their hose.  Different material has different levels of head loss JUST from the tubing, not considering our grids. Yeah a standard suggestion is ok!
shrimp how many kg shrimp can one grid service We need 1 Grid (20 meters) per 700 kg of shrimp depending on the density, etc..  Therefore, for 7 MT we need 10 grids or 200 meters total tubing
SAE what’s grid’s SAE?  Looks like in Fresh we are 1.2 kg per hour transferred in freshwater and 3.0 kg per hour in 35 ppt salt water.  This is PER GRID. 
Hatchery How to use tube in Hatchery? Most hatchery people I have showed IMMEDIATELY recognize the advantage, just by looking at that video showing the air output from our tubing and the PVC in the same tank.  They can immediately see the benefit. 
Plus remember, because drilled PVC is inefficient, they can reduce the number of blowers they are using or increase the number of tanks per blower by switching.  This saves money in electricity every day, week, month, year.  We had a customer in Mexico using 1 - 4.5 HP blower (3.5 KW) per 2 – 24 MT tanks to supply air.  With the Aero-Tube tubing, he is now running the same blower but for 4 tanks instead of 2.  Imagine the savings in that. These are the type of arguments you need to use when the farmer or hatchery says our tubing is too expensive or that it is more expensive than competition tubing.  Over time, we are actually the cheapest option when you take in all costs.

What I would say is that of course every hatchery has a different idea of the best way to use the tubing.  Some used a single line run down the center of the tank, some used 2 lines down the length of the tank in order to move/mix the water better.  And the largest user just uses 3 – 2 meter sections per tanks because he already has a number of air stones in his tanks and does not want to replace them until they break.
 Now, the optimal flow really depends on what the hatchery wants to do.  At 0.4 CFM per foot you will get very good oxygen transfer but not as much mixing in a tank.  I think perhaps for a hatchery tank it would be a good idea to increase this to 0.5 or even 0.6 CFM per foot in order to keep everything in suspension in the tank. 0.4 CFM is the optimal for transferring oxygen with small bubbles, if mixing the water is more important you can increase this as high as 0.8 CFM per foot and still get good results but the O2 transfer efficiency will drop some.
With the tubing, there are many different ways to use the product and get good results.  I really depends on what the hatchery is doing now and how we can adapt our tubing to match their system.  For example.  If a customer has a 6 meter long tank with drilled PVC run down the middle of the tank (6 meters) in one line, we can easier recommended one line of Aero-Tube of the same length and they could reduce the number of blowers they need to use per tank (PVC drilled takes much higher pressure to operate).
 
 
electricity If no electricity in sitel, how to use aero-tube system? If no electricity, you could use a diesel power blower instead of electric.
     
use how many aero-tube or grid needed for fish or shrimp? Could tell me what is the species of the fish raise in the pond, and the harvest density? This is the most important data to calculate the aero-tube or gird needed for your pond.

Our one grid with 44m3/hr airflow could ensure 700kg shrimp’s oxygen need. And in China we usually use two to three grids in one acre fish pond with total 6-8 tons carp product.

 
Mix water ability We use paddle wheel aerators not only for oxygen but water flow. The
paddlewheels are placed to create a circular water flow so that the waste is collected in the middle which makes it easy to remove after harvest.
With your aero tube airlift, is it still possible for me to control the flow of the water?
 
Recently, we tested a 1 hp paddlewheel against a 1 hp Aero-Tube air lift specifically looking at the mixing and circulation in the pond.  What we found was that the results were identical.  I have  attached several pictures showing the comparison. The total test took 35 minutes from the time the dye was released in the pond.  Each pond was exactly the same size  0.4    Ha. There was one very interesting note however. Both ponds used exactly the same amount of dye and it was applied in exactly the same spot in the pond.  In the final picture you will notice that the color in the air lift pond after 35 minutes is much darker. This is because the dye in the paddlewheel pond had begun settling out of the paddlewheel pond.  We believe this is because the paddlewheel is mostly mixing the top portion of the pond where the air lift is moving the complete water column and keeping the dye in suspension.
 
Floating How much weigth require to pull the hose down?
 
In working condition one meter tubing’s floating is less than 500g and for one grid the floating is a less 25kg.

You could use stainless steel or something else such brick to make it sink.
 
Using How much tubing I need ? Really it depends on the stock density, harvest density, aqua species..etc. We have two basical method  for how many tubing a pond needed: 1- How many paddlewheels you need for your pond and what's the total power? If we need the traditional aerators configration we can say that you only need one third of Aero-Tube configration based on Power with tubing's working water depth 1.0-1.5 meters. 2- We have detail data for vannamei shirmp culture. That is with air release depth 1-1.5m and airflow 2.2m3/m.hr one meter aeration tubing can support 25-35kg shrimp in aqua pond.
blower 5. What size of blower to use ? depends on the system pressue and total airflow needed.
a) System pressure=tubing’s operation pressure( 7kpa)+water depth( 10cm water depth=1kpa so 1meter water depth=10kpa)+pressure loss at connecting hose between tubing and blower( usually if you use >50mm hose as main hose and >25.4mm hose as lateral hose and the total lengh is less than 200m the pressure at hose will be less than 5kpa) with these data you can select the correct blower which shoud have a maximum operation pressure than the above system pressure.
b) Airflow: It is easy to calculate: when you know your harvest density you will know the tuibng quanity you need and then the airflow you need.
 
   
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